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This New Method Could Overcome Diabetes Cell Therapy
Type 1 diabetes results from the destruction of insulin-producing cells in the islets of the pancreas. Islet cell transplantation involves extracting islet cells from the pancreas of a deceased donor and implanting them in the liver of someone with Type 1.
Pancreatic cell transplants have the potential to be a permanent treatment for Type 1 diabetes. Problem is, the cells have trouble forming the blood vessel networks they need to thrive and provide insulin to patients. So scientists in the U.S. and Japan devised a new tissue engineering method to tackle this blood-supply problem in pancreatic cell transplantation. Using the method, they created pancreatic islets that cured severe Type 1 diabetes when they were transplanted into mice.
Human pancreatic islets tend to lose their blood vessels while being prepped for transplant, and attempts to combat this—including creating new islets from stem cells—have been largely unsuccessful, the researchers, from Cincinnati Children’s Hospital and Yokohama City University (YCU), wrote in their study. So to speed up vascularization in transplanted tissues, the researchers, led by Takanori Takebe of Cincinnati Children’s and Hideki Taniguchi of YCU, created a technique called self-condensation cell culture.
The team tested it with donated human organ cells, mouse organ cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, combining each of these cell types with progenitor cells called mesenchymal stem cells and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. They also added genetic and biochemical material that triggered the formation of pancreatic islets. Cultured in an endothelial cell growth medium, the “ingredients condensed and self-organized” into pancreatic islets
The self-condensation of human and mouse islets with endothelial cells not only promoted functionalization in culture but also massively improved post-transplant engraftment,” they wrote in the study. The transplant treated mouse models of Type 1 diabetes more effectively than did a conventional approach, they reported.
While the study is promising, Takebe warned that more work is in store before it can be used in humans. Transplanting donor cells might provoke a rejection from the recipient’s immune system, while a stem cell-based approach carries the risk of tumors that can arise from residual immature cells
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